Monday, July 17, 2006


« God said: Let the Earth produce vegetation, seed-bearing plants, trees bearing fruit with seed, each according to its kind, upon the Earth.
.And so it was.
The Earth produced vegetation: plants bearing seed according to their kind and trees producing fruit which has seed, according to their kind..
God saw that it was good. »

.(Bible, Genesis 1:11,12).


The present work is a sequel and the first English publication among the unique series of volumes “Flora of cultivated plants” started by N.I. Vavilov. Justifying the issuing of volumes of this serial on separate crops, he specified this publication as an encyclopedia on cultivated plants, major guidebook and directory for every biologist, plant breeder and plant grower. By now, the N.I.Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry (St. Petersburg, Russia) has issued several dozens of volumes of this serial dedicated to main agricultural crops with a bias towards national specificity of Russia and in Russian.

The volume devoted to long-term study of the collection of some annual grain legumes was for the first time published in 1937. However, due to a number of circumstances lupin was not included in this volume. The present book embraces the results of more than sixty years of monographic research on lupin genetic resources. Research materials are represented by the lupin collection of the N.I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry (VIR) storing now more than 2500 accessions of different lupin species collected by numerous expeditions over the globe. Theoretical basis for our research activities were N.I. Vavilov’s works on plant genetic resources.
We have used the special methodology of the Vavilov Institute developed with regard to lupin (Kurlovich et al., 1990b).
Many years of observing plants sown in various regions have enabled us to find out new regularities in the variability of characters depending on genetic features of the species and accessions, and also on ecological and agronomic conditions of their growth. We have also disclosed new characters and their combinations, both taxonomically significant and genetically determined. This factor as well as generalization of the data obtained by other researchers (Zhukovsky, 1929; Kazimierski and Novacki, 1961; Gladstones, 1974; Maissurjan and Atabiekova, 1974; Kazimierski and Kazimierska, 1975) made it possible to introduce essential corrections in the intra-specific taxonomic and eco-geographic classifications of lupins. These classifications have been developed on the basis of Vavilov’s concepts (the doctrine about the species as a system, the law of homological series in hereditary variation, differential systematic and geographical method of crop studies, etc.). The sites for studying lupin accessions were chosen with regard to the duration of vegetation periods, and soil and climate conditions required obtaining vigorous seed of each sample. The collection of white lupin was reproduced in the non-black-soil zone of the Ukraine (Kiev Province); yellow lupin in the forest-steppe zone of the Ukraine (Zhitomir Province) and on non-black soils in the Ukraine (near Kiev); narrow-leafed lupin in the non-black-soil region of Russia (Moscow Province) and in the black-soil zone of Russia (Tambov Province); multifoliate or Washington lupin near Pushkin (Leningrad Province, 20 km away from St.Petersburg); Pearl lupin (L. mutabilis Sweet.) and other species from America in the black-soil zone of Russia (Tambov Province). Besides, with the purpose of revealing the range of variability for specific characters and substances, the same accessions were also reproduced in other places. In particular, for a significant part of accessions replication were performed at the former Sukhumi Experimental Station of the Vavilov Institute (in Abkhazia) in the conditions of humid subtropics, at the former Central Asian Branch of VIR (near Tashkent, Uzbekistan) in the conditions of dry climate, in the black-soil zone of the Ukraine (Poltava Province), in the conditions of non-black-soil zone of Russia near the town of Pushkin (Leningrad Province, 20 km from St.Petersburg), and in Bryansk Province (at the All-Russian Institute of Lupin and Novozybkov Branch of the All-Russian Institute of Fertilizers and Agricultural Soil Science). Field investigations have been supplemented by herbarium studies and laboratory analyses. The purpose of this research is to accomplish comprehensive study of the global botanical and varietal diversity of different species in order to gain deeper insight into the problems of lupin geography, evolution and classification, and also to find out regularities in the variability of major valuable morphological and biological properties in various eco-geographic conditions of its cultivation.
The existing worldwide shortage of protein is generating special attention to lupin. In Russia, where climatic resources for cultivation of soybean are limited, lupin in the long run can play the role that soybean has gained in the U.S., i.e. it may become a highly efficient source of vegetative protein. Special interest in lupin is stirred up by high content of protein in its seed (up to 50%), as well as of oil (from 5 up to 20%) whose quality is close to that of olive, and by the absence of digestion inhibitors and other anti-nutritional substances. Lupin seed have been used since ancient times as human food and animal feed (Gross, 1988; Lopez-Bellido and Fuentes, 1986; Beirão da Costa, 1994). Green material of low-alkaloid (sweet) varieties is also excellent forage. Due to their symbiosis with nodule bacteria lupins are capable to accumulate in soil up to 200 kg of nitrogen per hectare, thus being perfect symbiotic plants. Utilizing lupin as green manure helps to protect environments from pollution, go without expensive fertilizers, and obtain ecologically clean products (Lopez-Bellido and Fuentes, 1986; Lopez-Bellido, 1994). It should be marked that the progress achieved by man in domestication of lupins is rather modest. Of several hundred lupin species existing in a nature, only three annual species and one perennial (Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl.) are used in Russian agriculture for forage production. However, many wild species of lupin are promising for agricultural use. Besides, further efforts are needed to solve the problems of plant resistance to diseases and pests, higher adaptability to unfavorable environmental factors, and breeding of forms with high technological properties for agricultural production. With these goals in view, special significance is acquired by scientifically justified selection of breeding sources, diversity of such materials, and the degree of comprehensiveness in studying them. In the outcome of long-term studies of the lupin collection stored at the N.I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry, it became possible to accumulate a great deal of original data on this crop’s specific and varietal structure, its geography, ecology, systematization, genetics, biochemistry, immunology, and selection methods. All these issues are dealt with in the present book.
It is based on our own researches, as well as on the research data received by prominent scientists, such as P.M. Zhukovsky, E.I. Sinskaya, B.M. Libkind, V.S. Fedotov, N.I. Sharapov, N.N. Ivanov, M.I. Smirnova, V.N. Dyubin and other experts who worked in the experimental network of the Vavilov Institute in different times, N.A. Maissurjan and A.I. Atabiekova who conducted fundamental research on lupin in Moscow Agricultural Academy. The national (Russian) and world literature on lupin has also been generalized. Russian references are made here in the original (Cyrillic) alphabet. In our opinion, this may facilitate their search and additional study. Our work essentially supplements the book published in 1998 by the scientists of Australia «Lupins as crop plants» (edited by J.S. Gladstones, C. Atkins and J. Hambling, 1998). In their book, the materials dedicated to studying and cultivation of lupin in Australia and many other countries were summarized. However, information about lupin growing in the ex-USSR countries was provided there on a limited scale, probably due to certain difficulties in translating Russian literature. It should also be mentioned here that the world community on the whole has very limited access to scientific information on lupin cultivation in the former Soviet Union.
The present work is supposed to fill this gap, so that the data of the researches conducted by Russian scientists could be available to the world’s scientific community. We attempted to throw light on the global achievements in studying lupin by exposing the main developments of Russian, Polish, Byelorussian and Ukrainian scientists in this sphere. The contributors of this book are the liding scientists from Russia, Poland and Finland. Originally, the present work had been written in Russian ...(Kurlovich B.S., Rep'ev S.I., et al. 1995), but later was translated into English.
The authors’ goal was to make scientific achievements of Russian scientists known to wider scientific circles of the world. Unfortunately, the English version of the text may contain discrepancies of translation and stylistic faults. The editor is making an apology for this; as it is actually his first attempt to present in English the existing voluminous materials about lupin in Russia.
Special thanks are addressed to Mr. A.G. Krylov for his help and counsel while translating this book. I would like to express my gratitude and compliments to all scientists of the Vavilov Institute and other institutes, who carry on the work with plant genetic resources started by N.I. Vavilov. We were able to generalize this research only owing to the close cooperation and dialogue with many of them.
Special gratitude is extended to Professors N.I. Korsakov, V.F. Dorofeev, M. G. Agaev, N.M. Chekalin, G.G. Davidjan, K.Z. Budin, B.N. Malinovsky, A.F. Merezko, B.V. Rygin, A.I. Shishkin, V.I.Bureniv and V.D. Kobyliansky, as well as to Drs. A.V. Khotyanovich, N.N. Nazarova, S.I. Pilipenko, V.A. Rybnikova, O.N. Korovina, M.P. Tarasov, T.V. Buravtseva, and F.T. Tarba.
.We do express deep appreciation to the Government and to the People of Finland for warm reception and for making favorable environment while this book was written. This work has been edited and published thanks to the financial support of Finish Company International North Express Co (Raimo Heinänen and Päivi Heinänen)

Boguslav S. Kurlovich
You can read our book on the Internet here!
You can buy the book here, and here!
The Russian version of the book on -
Intraspecific diversity of Lupins on -
Lupins as a potential crop in Finland -

Links to more Lupin info:
PLANTS Profile - Lupinus L. - lupine -

Lupin -
Search for: Lupinus L. -

Lupinus L. -

Tree Lupins -

Lupinus albus L. -

L. angustifolius -

Lupinus mutabilis -
Gasid is one of the first italian companies to care about the distribution of LUPIN, promoting the consumption of this product -

We are waiting to more links on a theme: Lupins !!!



Bogdan said...

Yours Inter specific and intra specific classifications of lupins are perfect!
Vavilov symbolizes the glory of Russian and world science and, at the same time, personifies its tragedy.
In the stifling atmosphere of Stalin’s totalitarian rule, the Institute of Plant Industry headed by Vavilov turned into a bulwark of resistance against the pseudoscientific ideas of Lysenko.
Because of this controversy, Vavilov was arrested and died in prison in 1943. Nevertheless, the memory of Nikolai Vavilov was honored by his followers, and preserved in his collections of plant genetic resources, ideas and yours book!

Raimo Heinänen said...

Our enterprise (Saimaa Food Oy) is engaged in studying of fishes of Lake Saimaa and also in dilution of salmons. We offer you cooperation in searching of effective aluminous forage for fishes.
The qualitative aluminous forage is necessary for a quick development of fishes. We are buying now expensive forages for the fishes, prepared on a basis of a soya in the USA.
I suggest you to lead test for preparing forages on the basis of local perennial lupin, which grows and matures in Finland!?

Dr.V.Dyubin said...

"Dr.Viktor Dyubin"
Dear Boguslav!
I see this book as a biological basement of the plant-soil-climate system,
which can be useful for making forecasts of using different types of lupins in the world.

Anatoly Khotyanovich said...

You are very courageous scientist, decided to translate such valuable book to English language. Achievements of Russia in Lupins researches should be accessible to all World Community!
It is visible, that you are not an Englishman; however the maintenance of the book is quite readable and it is clear. I wish the further successes!

Anonymous said...

I found your website while looking for information about Lupinus mutabilis. I work in Biointensive Agricultural Mini-farms and we categorize crops by their ability to provide calories for human beings and the amount of biomass that they create for compost to be cycled into the garden system. Do you have any information on dry and wet biomass weights for Lupinus mutabilis, as well as Carbon and Nitrogen make up of the plant?

I didn't see any links to write you an email directly so am posting to the site.

Thank you.

BK said...

Dear reader,

I thank you for attention to our book!

You can to find a significant part of answers for interesting you questions here: (Table 26!)

And here:

And here:

Dry biomass weights for Lupinus mutabilis were 32-42 and more DM in g/plant
Humidity of plants in our researches was 60-70 % (in a phase of flowering).
You can calculate weight of wet biomass accordingly.

Materials about Biochemical Composition are here:

and here:

and here (Table 6,7 9):!!!

Yours faithfully,
The editor of the book BK

Prof. Adam Wojtaszczyk said...

What do you thinking about a problem of anthracnose?
Prof. Adam Wojtaszczyk

BK said...

Anthracnose is very serious!
However, I offer concrete ways of creations tolerant forms to this disease (step by step).

It is necessary to cross among themselves the forms showing tolerance to this disease, accumulating in the subsequent generations different genes of tolerance.
It is possible to receive resistant forms in the future due to gradual amplification in genotypes of tolerance attribute to anthracnose, and by creations of transgressions.

We have experience of creation of lupins forms, steady to фузариозу. It is discussed by us in the chapter: GENETICS OF LUPINS ; section: Genetics of quantitative characters.

As a case study, we will discuss the method of producing transgressive forms of lupin on the basis of eco-geographical approach (Kurlovich et al., 1995). We have found out that each quantitative character has from two to five or more types of variability. This fact is very interesting. Earlier it was rarely taken into account in the system of genetic techniques. A definite character has changed in the process of cultivation in various environments almost identically in a majority of accessions. However, this character has a different type of variability in a small number of accessions when studied in different environments (different geographic locations, or different years of study on one site). It appeared that in the hybrid progeny this character was within the same limits as in the parental forms when they had identical types of variability of such character.
However, the hybrid progeny may comprise transgressive forms, i.e. the forms with an increased or decreased value of the character when crossing parents with different types of variability. Differentiation in the variability of characters in parental forms can be found by testing them under different conditions using, however, the same techniques. With the help of this method, it is possible to obtain valuable transgressive forms with regard to any characters, from chemical structure to disease resistance (Kurlovich et. al., 1995).
Differences in disease susceptibility in the same accessions were found in contrasting environments. Resistant forms selected in one region were crossed with accessions that showed resistance in two other regions. As a result of hybridization, two transgressive resistant forms were obtained in F4 : from the crosses cv. Frost x cv. Apendrilon (Lupinus angustifolius L.), and line G-413 x line 85 (Lupinus luteus L.). Their resistance in all three regions appeared to be higher than in their parental forms.

We thinking that this approach will be effective also with reference to anthracnose!

Xiaoling wang said...

Dear Prof. Bogouslav Kourlovitch,

I am gland to hear that you are a expert in studying Lupins.
My name is wang xiaoling. I am a graduate student and I graduated from Northwest A&F University last year. Now, I am working in the Biological Resources Institute, Jiangxi Academy of Sciences.

My main research content is Lupins. I have read your book: LUPIN.
I know that Lupin had been studied deep very much in your country. But in China , it just started.

Then, I decide to translate your book into Chinese.

And I also hope you can instruct me to study Lupins. Waits for your good news!

Xiaoling wang

xiao-ling wang said...

Dear Prof. Bogouslav,

I have received and accepted your book.

Thank you very much again!
Best wish to you!

Yours faithfully,
Xiao-ling wang